An integrated circuit (IC), also known as microelectronic circuits, microchips or chips are an assembly of electronic components fabricated as a single unit. Integrated circuits were invented in 1950 by Nobel-prize winner Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor, United States.
The different functional elements of a circuit include transistors, resistors, condensers etc. found on a piece of a silicon semiconductor substrate. Importantly, integrated circuits (ICs) act as the hearts and brains of most circuits.
Types of integrated circuits (ICs)
Integrated circuits can be classified as:
Analog: This includes sensors, power management circuits, operational amplifiers and more performing analog functions such as amplification, active filtering, demodulation and mixing
Digital: These can contain billions of logic gates slip-flops, multiplexers and other circuits
Mixed-signal: These combine analog and digital circuits on a chip to create analog-to-digital converters or digital-to analog converters
Applications of integrated circuits (ICs)
Integrated circuits are used in almost all electrical equipment or modern appliances. Some common applications include: